Getting the Camera Ready . . . with Every New Film
Setting the film speed. Depress the uncoupling lever (3) and hold it in this position. Turn the shutter speed ring (7) to the left or right until the speed rating on the red DIN or ASA scale (1 and 17) – correspondng to the speed of the film in the camera – is opposite the red dot on the shutter speed ring. Then let go of the uncoupling lever.
This film speed setting is essential to ensure correct exposures with the automatic exposure control.
Inserting the film. Press together the locking catches (4) and open the camera back. Push the film reversing lever (25) to the left. The rewind knob (24) springs up; pull it out fully.
Push the beginning of the film into the slit of the take-up spool and anchor it to the hook (28 and 32) by a perforation hole. Draw the cassette across the film track, insert in the cassette chamber, and fully push back the rewind knob. The rewind shaft (29) must engage the centre spool of the cassette, and the sprocket of the transport shaft (31) should engage the film perforation (see illustration IV in main pictures). Close the camera back.
Setting the film counter. Turn the milled knob (19) until the diamond mark (for a 36 exposure cassette – illustration a) or the circle mark (with a 20 exposure cassette – see illustration c) is opposite the red dot. Alternately operate the the rapid winding lever and the release until the film counter indicates No. 36 (illustration b) or No. 20 (illustration d) for the first exposure.
From this point onwards the film counter automatically shows the number of shots still available every time the film is advanced. In other words, it runs backwards to No. 1.
The Film Indicator (11) is intended to remind you of the type of film you have loaded in the camera – it has no effect on the exposure. Set it before loading the film (while the rewind knob is pulled up) by rotating the disc.
Setting the Exposure . . . Shutter Speed and Aperture
Pre-set the shutter speed. Rotate the shutter speed ring (7) until the required speed setting clicks into position opposite the triangular mark. The exposure times from one hundredth of a second to one fifteenth of a second are automatically timed by the shutter; at the B setting the shutter remains open as long as you keep the release depressed.
Speeds up to one sixtieth of a second are suitable for hand-held exposures. For a longer time – with the camera firmly supported or mounted on a tripod – a cable release can be screwed into the socket (16).
Align the two pointers by turning the aperture ring (10) while pointing the camera at the subject. That is all: you have now set the correct aperture corresponding to the shutter speed. See Meter Readings for methods of meter readings.
If the two pointers cannot be aligned within the movement range of the aperture scale (from f/22 to f/2.8), conditions are not suitable for an exposure with the pre-selected shutter speed. In this case select a slower speed, if possible with the subject to be taken.
Aperture and Depth of Field
The depth of field zone depends on the aperture setting, and covers that part of the subject area in front of, and behind, the focused distance, which is reproduced on the film with acceptable sharpness. Note that:
large apertures (e.g. f/2.8) yield limited depth of field
small apertures (e.g. f/16) yield greater depth of field
Reading off the depth of field. – After having set the distance (see Setting the Distance) hold the camera so that you can read the aperture marks on the depth of field scale (6) as well as the distance scale (5) at the same time. The depth of field extends from the distance figure above any given left-hand aperture number to the distance figure above the corresponding aperture number at the right side of the triangular mark.
Consider the depth of field when you adjust the aperture to match a pre-selected shutter speed. If your subject calls for a greater depth of field zone than obtainable at the correct aperture setting, you may have to pre-set a longer exposure time in order to arrive at a smaller aperture.
Setting the Distance
The bright circle in the centre of the crystal-frame finder is the focusing area of the coupled rangefinder. This rangefinder field shows the subject with double outlines (see top illustration) as long as the lens is not correctly focused.
Turn the focusig mount (5) until the double outlines in the rangefinder field fuse into one (see bottom illustration). This sets the camera exactly to the measured distance.
To make focusing easier, watch the vertical lines of a subject when you hold the camera horizontally. Similarly, focus on horizontal subject outlines with upright views.
Three-point Settings . . . Without the Rangefinder
Candid action shots, for instance children at play, sports, and the like, often yield surprisingly live and attractive pictures. In this case you don’t bother to set the distance exactly with the rangefinder, but use instead the following red symbols on the distance scale:
black spot = PORTRAITS – subject distance 4 feet
inverted triangle = GROUPS – subject distance 11 feet
circle = VIEWS – subject distance 33 feet.
According to your subject, set the distance scale simply to one of these three symbols. This gives you, among others, the following depth of field zones:
Once you have set the exposure (shutter speed and aperture) and the distance, and tensioned the shutter, pull the small red lever (18) sideways as far as it will go. On pressing the release, the exposure now takes place automatically after a delay of about ten seconds. You therefore have tme to take your place quickly in front of the camera. Do not, however, use the self-timer with the shutter set to B.
Synchronized Flash Shots
Small light-weight flash guns can be mounted directly in the accessory shoe on top of the camera. Larger guns or the lamp holders of electronic flash units are generally mounted to one side of the camera with a special bracket. The flash cable completes the electric circuit; it plugs into the flash socket (15) on the shutter.
The shutter has only one synchronising setting: X. For flash shots (with or without the self-timer) you must therefore use only the shutter speeds shown in the table below.
The correct aperture setting can be obtained from so-called guide numbers, usually quoted on the flash bulb packing or in the leaflet issued with the bulb or electronic flash unit. Divide the appropriate guide number by the distance in feet between the subject and the flash gun on the camera: the result is the aperture to be used.
Aperture = Guide No. : Distance
Example: Guide No. 75 divided by Distance 15 feet = 5
So set the aperture between f/4 and f/5.6
Shooting . . . Frame by Frame
Voigtlander crystal-frame viewfinder. The brilliant reflected frame finder system shows you the subject in natural size. When sighting you can therefore keep both eyes open and have a clear view over the surroundings of the subject as well.
Please note: with subjects at about three and a half feet the limits of the field of view are displaced downwards or sideways (according to whether you hold the camera horizontally or upright) as shown by the two short lines on the reflected image frame.
Releasing. Always press the release gently and smoothly – never jerk it as that would produce blurred pictures.
Rapid winding lever. After every shot pull out the lever as far as it will go (with one full stroke or several short ones). This tensions the shutter, advances the film, and advances the film counter. An automatic lock prevents operation a second time before you have made an exposure. Also, you can only release the shutter after working the rapid winding lever.
Unloading the Camera . . . after the Last Exposure
Rewinding and removing the film. Push the reversing lever to the left, letting the rewind knob jump up. Turn the knob in the direction of the arrow until the diamond or circle mark reappears on the film counter window. Then open the camera back, fully pull out the rewind knob, and remove the cassette.
Changing Partly Exposed Films
With the VITO CLR you can always remove a partly exposed film in the middle and change it for another one (for instance to switch over from black-and-white to colour film).
Remember – or make a note of – the number of the last exposed frame, and rewind the partly exposed film, into its cassette. When reloading this film later on, proceed as already described up to the point of setting the film counter ot the diamond mark.
Then depress the release, let go, press down again, and hold it down in this position. Keep on pulling out the rapid winding lever as far as it will go, until the film counter again indicates the number of the frame you noted before. Now let go of the release, work the rapid winding crank once more, and carry on shooting.
Meter Readings . . . in a Nutshell
Generally you get reliable exposure setting by pointing the exposure meter straight at the subject from the camera position. This so-called reflected light measurement is suitable for average subjects without excessive contrasts of light and shade.
Out of doors – especially with open views – it is advisable to point the camera slightly downwards as the bright sky reflects far more light than the actual subject. Exceptions are cloud studies with figures, buildings or other landscape features deliberately rendered as silhouettes; also sea and beach scenes.
In some cases a more accurate way of taking reflected light readings is necessary, namely close-up readings. This may arise with bright objects against a dark background, with close-ups with the aid of Proximeter lenses, and with nearly all pictures of people, especially portraits.
For a close-up reading go near enough to the subject to take in only the parts that really matter. Take care not to cast a shadow over the area which you are measuring.
With tricky subjects, incident light readings are particularly reliable. Use this method for scenes with extreme brightness differences between the subject and its surroundings, for instance against-the-light shots, snow scenes and seaside views.
For this purpose fit the diffusing screen included with every camera in front of the exposure meter cell. Then take the exposure reading from the subject towards the camera viewpoint to be used. Incident light readings are also successful for interiors with or without artificial light.
Note: with incident light readings the correct exposure will of course also depend on the light reflected from the subject. Obviously it is not possible to quote any correction factors for that. So in deriving exposures from incident light readings go by your own experience, gained as you go on.
Voigtlander Filters are hard coated and carry a 32 mm. diameter push-on mount. Every filter (except for the ultra-violet filter) needs some extra exposure. The exposure increase, in the form of a filter factor, is marked on the filter e.g. 4x (exposure without filter one hundred and twenty fifth of a second, with filter one thirtieth of a second).
Yellow filter G 1.5x Slight filtering effect for outdoor shots. Ideal for sports and action subjects and pictures with low sun. Filter factor: 1.5 x, or open the lens aperture by half a stop.
Yellow filter G 3x Universal filter for landscapes and other outdoor subjects; indispensable for snow pictures. Filter factor: 3 x, or open the aperture by one and a half stops
Green filter Gr 4x Lightens green tones in landscapes. Recommended for artificial light portraiture and for copying coloured originals.Filter factor: 4x, or open the aperture by 2 stops
Orange filter Or 5x Strongly cuts blue for dramatic effects. Reduces atmospheric haze in distant views. Filter factor: 5 x, or open the lens aperture by two and a half stops.
Ultra-violet filter UV Cuts out ultra-violet radiation in high mountains or near the sea. Eliminates unpleasant blue casts in colour shots. Requires no exposure increase.
Close-ups with the Voigtlander Proximeter
Do not miss this fascinating and interesting field – you enter a completely new world, a microcosm of small objects and animals.
Whether you are interested in blossoms, aquarium or insect life, coins, small objets d’art or postage stamps – with the Voigtlander Proximeter you can record it all just as you see it.
The special advantage of this ideal focusing unit is that it permits hand-held close-ups down to 10 inches from the subject. The camera is ready to shoot all the time, an important point with moving or live objects. At the same time the Proximeter compensates for the finder parallax.
The Voigtlander Proximeter system uses two supplementary lenses. One is a positive meniscus which fits in front of the camera lens, and the other is a cylindrical lens unit which fits over the rangefinder and deflects the two measuring rays. This couples with the rangefinder and the lens for the near range as accurately as over the normal focusing range from infinity to three and a half feet.
Hints for Colour Shots
Subjects with large areas of colour, but without great brightness differences, make the best colour pictures. Put people against a quiet neutral background to make them stand out; outdoor portraits are best taken by slightly hazy sunlight.
With landscapes be sure to get a colourful and live foreground into the picture. For mountain views and at the seaside, use the ultra-violet filter to eliminate disturbing blue casts.
Early morning and late evening sunlight tends to be orange in tone. Subjects illuminated only by the blue sky and not directly by the sun often take on a predominant bluish rendering.
With daylight shots, you can light up shadows by white reflecting screens or with a blue flash bulb or electronic flash. Mixed lighting (for instance tungsten lamps combined with daylight) leads to colour distortion.
Care of the Camera and Lens
Successful results and long life of your valuable camera depend largely on proper care and correct operations.
Therefore always handle the camera gently; never use force.
Protect the camera against hard knocks and do not drop it. When travelling by car do not keep the camera in the glove compartment where it is exposed to a great deal of vibration. In the long run that may harm the built-in photo-electric exposure meter.
Clean the lens only with a soft, fluffless cloth. However, first dust off coarse particles of grit (or sand at the seaside) carefully with a soft sable brush. Finger marks and other traces of grease on the lens surface can be removed with a piece of cotton wool moistened with pure alcohol or ether.