The Wrayflex is a high precision camera designed to produce fine quality pictures under any conditions. It is a true reflex with eye-level viewing and is British Made throughout. It is not complicated to operate and while being able to satisfy all the requirements of the experienced miniaturist, it can be used successfully by one with little previous knowledge of the exacting standards of miniature photography, provided the following instructions are followed carefully.

Loading with Film

The WRAYFLEX is designed to use any standard 35 mm. cassette. Loading may be carried out in daylight, but care should be taken that you are free from the direct rays of the sun.

Remove back by pushing up release catches; the back can now be taken off completely.

Pull out rewind spindle and place cassette into its housing, key-way uppermost. Push back the rewind splindle, engaging the key into the cassette.

Pull out four to five inches of film, including the ‘film lead’, ensuring that the emulsion side is towards the film track. Insert the end under the clip in the winding spindle after bending back about a quarter of an inch of the film lead.

Wind the film on to the winding sprocket by turing the flanges with the thumb until the film is taut across the gate, seeing that the sprockets correctly engage with the perforations.

Wind the key a half-turn in a clockwise direction to make sure that the film progresses smoothly across the gate and that the sprocket engagement is true. Press the shutter release and replace the back.

Turn the exposure counter in a clockwise direction until zero on the scale is opposite to the indicator.

The Wrayflex is now ready for use.

Preparing for Exposure

As a small amount of film has been exposed to light in the process of loading, the winder key should now be turned two half turns, depressing the shutter release between the turns as the film transport is coupled to the shutter release to prevent double exposure. As will be explained on a later page, the shutter design prevents successive turning of the winder without the action of exposure first taking place. These two ‘frames’ will be fogged unless loading has been carried out in the darkroom. Note that the rewind key rotates while winding, thus confirming that the film is being taken up by the winding spindle. The exposure counter will now register ‘2’. For time exposures or other occasions when a tripod is being used, a cable release can be screwed over the press button.

The shutter speed can be altered either before or after the film has been wound on to the next frame.

Viewing and Focusing

Open the iris to full aperture and view through the eyepiece. The image seen is precisely what will be photographed. Focus by turning the milled ring at the back of the lens. A guide to the position of correct focus is given by the scale calibrated in feet n the focusing mount of the lens.

It will be seen that a small circular area, just below the centre of the screen, gives a magnified image. Focusing with this magnifier ensures maximum sharpness.

If on viewing, no image can be seen, as explained previously, this will indicate that you have omitted to set the shutter and viewing mechanism and that the previously exposed film is still in the gate. A half turn of the winding key in the base of the camera will bring the mirrors back into use.

Having satisified yourself that the composition and focusing are correct, the depth of field can be increased by using a smaller lens aperture, should this be desirable.

Pre-Set Iris Diaphragm – First Version

All Wrayflex lenses are fitted with a device making it possible to focus at full aperture and then, by turning the iris ring to its furthest extent, to close the iris to the aperture required to be used.

The mechanism for operating this device consists of a lever fixed to a freely rotating ring fitting into any of a series of slots, in the iris ring, cut at the marked apertures.

The lever is first fitted into a pre-detemrined slot and then then iris is opened to full aperture. When focusing has been completed, the iris ring is closed as far as possible which will be the aperture previously determined and the exposure can be made.

Pre-Set Iris Diaphragm – Second Version

All Wrayflex lenses are fitted with a device making it possible to focus at full aperture and then, by turning the iris ring to its furthest extent, to close the iris to the aperture required to be used.

The mechanism is a rotating milled ring into which is fitted a pin, the ring is spring-loaded and by means of a slight upward pressure can be freely rotated. A series of slots are cut into the iris ring at the engraved apertures, the necessary aperture is assessed and the ring rotated so that the pin falls into the correct clot. The iris is then opened to full aperture for focusing; immediately before exposing, the iris ring is turned clockwise against the stop.

Taking the Picture

Probably the most important factor in successful miniature photography is the steady handling of the camera while exposing. Practice will surely teach, but the following hints will undoubtedly help the beginner.

Firmly grasp the camera in the right hand, leaving the index finger free for depressing the release; press the camera against the face. Support the base of the camera in the palm of the hand and steady with the index figer on the top, leaving the centre finger free to operate the focusing and aperture rings. Keep the left elbow tucked into the body. The exposure release should be depressed gently; particularly does this apply when using the slower speeds. This action releases the hinged mirror system, which in turn. operates the shutter when the former is well clear of the picture format. It will be appreciated, therefore, that a ‘split second’ of time lag occurs between the actual pressing of the release and the moving of the shutter, during which time the camera must be absolutely steady in the hands. At speeds slower than a 50th of a second it is advisable to use a tripod if possible.

Immediately after making each exposure, it is a good habit to prepare for the next, re-setting the shutter and film by means of the winding key in the base.

Filter Technique

All Wrayflex lenses have an internal thread on the lens mount to accept a 40.5 mm. screw-in filter holder. The glasses of this holder are interchangeable so that only one holder with a range of glasses (38 mm. diameter) is required.

(A table of filter factors has been captured as an image and is therefore available in the “With Pictures” version of these instructions)

Yellow Filters reduce the actinic effect of blue, rendering it darker, and are therefore, particularly suitable for landscape photography in order to obtain clearly defined clouds effects on a normal blue sky. In the case of a very light blue sky use a darker filter and vice versa.

Green Filters give an effect similar to that of yellow filters, but also hold back red (render it darker), to which some panchromatic films are comparatively over-sensitive (photogrpahing it too light).

Ultra-Violet Filters are only to be employed at heights of 6,500 ft. (2,000 m.) above sea-level and over to avoid an unduly dark sky, such as would be ontained by using a yellow filter. At the same time such a filter absorbs the ultra-violet radiation prevalent at high altitudes for which the lens is not corrected and which would reduce the definition.

Orange Filters give over-correction, and serve therefore, as effect filters for showing up heavy clouds against a dark sky, and to give very clear distant views in landscapes, eliminating light haze etc.

Red Filters are of still stronger effect than orange filters for extreme contrast, creating a black sky with brilliant clouds faking sunshine into moonlight effect, etc.

Dark Red Filters to be used only with infra-red film. Chiefly employed for scientific purposes, they penetrate mist in long-distance photography.

Blue Filters are for panchromatic film in artificial light. They absorb part of the red sensitivity. This results in better skin tones.

Close-Up Work

The Wrayflex, as a single-lens reflex camera, is particularly suited for close-up photography. With the addition of extension rings, distances between 23 ins. and 9 ins. are covered as shown in the chart below. A copying unit can be supplied which greatly facilitates such work and is necessary for document copying. The column carries an arm with a camera support plate which moves freely up and down, and can be fixed at any desired height up to 24 ins. above the board. The subject to be photographed or the document to be copied is square to the lens and can be viewed and focused in the usual way through the reflex finder.(A table of extension tube data has been captured as an image and is therefore available in the “With Pictures” version of these instructions)

Instructions for Flash

The camera is internally synchronised for flash; two flash sockets are fitted on the camera front. An electric cable is connected from the flash outfit to the socket on the camera by means of a co-axial plug as fitted to the majority of flash guns. On releasing the shutter an electrical circuit is automatically closed through the flash contacts firing the bulb.

The upper socket is marked ‘E’ to denote its use for electronic flash. The contact on this circuit is made the very instant the shutter is fully open. It is also used for flash bulbs with a delay between contact and flash of only 4 – 7 milliseconds such as the Speed Midget (SM) type. The blinds of the focal plane shutter are only fully apart at the 1/25th second shutter setting being partly closed at all faster speeds. Electronic flash and SM bulbs can only be used with speeds up to 1/25th second. Taking into account that the flash duration of the electronic flash tube is approximately 1/1000th of a second and the SM bulb 1/50th, instantaneous exposures are always obtained.

When the plug is connected to the lower socket (marked B) the shutter is fully open (at 1/25th second) 17 milliseconds (1/50th second) after the electrical contact has been made. This allows for the use of normal flash bulbs which have a firing delay of 17 – 20 miliseconds. But remember, this is again at 1/25th second shutter setting.

Alway connect the flash gun after the camera is wound on and after exposure is made, wind on immediately for the next shot. Otherwise, if electronic flash is being used, the gun will fire again after build-up, for the circuit is closed while the shutter is in the un-set position. Similarly, if bulbs are being used, a new bulb may be inserted and will fire immediately unless the shutter is first set by being wound on. The use of focal plane type flash bulbs does not allow the use of faster speeds without giving uneven illumination.

Removing the Film

The WRAYFLEX is designed to take 36 exposures on a standard length of 35 mm. film. When the exposure counter registers this number, the cassette has been completed. It will be noted that the two frames lost in loading by daylight have already been counted.

To wind the film back to its cassette, turn the handle on the top of the camera in a clockwise direction, at the same time pressing the sprocket stud on the bottom of the camera which automatically releases the sprocket, thus allowing the free movement of the film. It will be readily appreciated when the tension of the pull eases, indicating that the film is now clear of the sprocket. Give about two more turns and then film is fully wound back.

Take off the back and pull out the rewind spindle, thus freeing the cassette for removal and if required, reloading. As for loading, this operation should be carried out in subdued light.

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