The Nettar camera is a roll film camera which is truly self-erecting, the front springing into working position on slight pressure being applied to the button on the side of the camera. The camera can thus be opened with one hand. The usual operations of opening the baseboard and pulling out the lens front into the infinity position are obviated. When near objects are to be taken the camera is focused for the appropriate distance by the rotation of the front lens cell. The film is held flat in the focal plane by a spring pressure plate.
A special advantage of the Nettar is the way in which the flexible release is adjusted when not in use: there is a catch on the inner side of the baseboard to hold the flexible, so that it is impossible to lose or forget it.
The film window in the camera back is sufficiently protected so that it may be used also for panchromatic films.
Before loading the camera for the first time all the manipulations should be practised.
How to open the Camera
Hold the camera in the hand with the top slightly tilted forward and press open the spring button (1) directly under the film winding key.
This releases the locked base-board, the lens (5) springs forward automatically, and the struts (7) on both sides of the bellows snap firmly into position.
The View Finders
The cameras are equipped with a brilliant view finder (4). It shows in reduced size nearly the same image as formed by the lens on the film. The objects which the picture is intended to include should be seen in the finder.
When the camera is opened, the viewfinder is ordinarily set for upright (vertical) pictures. When oblong (horizontal) pictures are to be taken, the view finder should be rotated to the limit of motion.
The composition of the picture is rendered much easier by the use of a finder magnifier. The magnifier attachment enlarges the small finder image about 5 times.
In addition to the reflecting finder, the Nettar cameras are provided with a metal frame finder (11) (Fig. 2) with sight (12) lying flat against the side of the camera body when not in use.
To look through this finder, approach the eye quite close to the sighter and view through the centre of the wire frame, which will then show the same image as produced by the lens.
Closing the Camera
Return the brilliant view finder back to its normal position for upright pictures. Hold the camera in both hands, as shown in Fig. 3, and depress the two side struts (7) as shown in the illustration, whereby the locking is released and the baseboard can be easily closed. The lens front and the bellows fold up automatically.
How to hold the Camera while taking the Picture
The camera is specially designed as a hand camera and will doubtless be used principally for taking snapshots from the hand. When doing so, the camera should be held firmly in the left hand and pressed against the body so as to steady it as much as possible. The shutter should then be operated with the right hand (see Fig. 4).
When taking photos at eye level look through the sighter 12, and the frame 11. All objects visible in the finder will be reproduced on the negative.
Care should be taken, that during the exposure the horizontal and vertical lines of the object are parallel to the correspoding lines of the finder frame as otherwise the picture will be distorted.
Photographs requiring a longer exposure that one-twenty-fifth second should be taken with the camera fixed to a tripod. For this purpose, the camera has screw threads for verticla and horizontal pictures (8 and 9). The screw thread for vertical exposures is in the bottom board the other one on the side of the camera body.
When it is desired to photograph without a tripod, the camera may be set up on a table or firm base, the hinged support (6) being then erected so as to serve as a rest.
Use the rollfilm BII8 giving 8 exposures three and one-quarter inches by two and one-quarter inches. We can highly recommend the rapid Ziess Ikon film “Orthochrom” or “Panchrom” with which it is possibke to obtain very satisfatory snapshots even on a dull day.
How to put in the Film
The film spools can be put in the camera in daylight and similarly removed in daylight after exposure. The film may thus be changed without the need of a dark room, which renders the camera particularly convenient for tourists. It is, however, advisable not to change spools in direct sulight and to interpose at least one’s own shadow.
Push the button (3) under the carrying handle in the direction of the arrow. The back, which is hnged to the camera body, is then unlocked and can be turned down.
A newly supplied camera contains in the spool chamber near the film winder (2) an empty film spool for the reception of the exposed film. The core of the film spool is hollow at both ends and, when inseting subsequent films, is easy to engage with the spool pins of the camera.
Insert the empty spool in the upper spool chamber by pressing the end with the round hole against the resilient spool holder disk, the other end with the slit being near the film winder (2). Turn the film winder till its inner part enters the slit of the spool and causes the spool to turn too.
Insert the unexposed spool into the opposite chamber, beginning with the end near the resilient spool holder disk to which pressure must be applied. The tapered end of the protecting paper must point in the direction of the empty spool.
After severing the white gummed slip draw the protecting paper over the two nickel guide rollers and thread it into the longest slit of the empty spool (Fig 5). Bind the protecting paper by turing the film winding key about four half turns. When doing so see that the protecting paper winds on straight and that it does not foul the ends of the spool. Any tendancy of the film to run crookedly should be corrected at once.
Close the back and turn the winding key until a warning hand becoes visible in the red window in the back of the camera. Shortly afterwards the No. 1 will appear. The film is now in place for the first picture.
How to unload the Camera.
When the last film section has been exposed, turn the film key until the paper back is no longer visible in the red window. Now seal the film with the adhesive strip provided for the purpose and take out the spool by again pressing it against the spring pin and lifting out the other end (Fig. 6)
The following facts refer to cameras whose release trigger is operated on the shutter itself, at the front.
Directions for the release on the camera body are given page 19 and 20.
Nettar and Derval shutter
The shutter allows speeds of one-twenty-fifth, one-fiftieth and one-hundredth of a second and long or short time exposures.
The lever and graduated scales for setting the shutter speeds and the diaphragm are located on the upper part of the shutter and can therefore be easily operated when the camera is in position for exposure.
T Long time exposures
Set the lever (a) to the letter T. A pressure on lever (b) or on the wire release which is screwed into the bush (c) opens the shutter, which is closed by a second pressure.
B Short time exposures
Set the lever (a) to the letter B. Open the shutter by pressure on lever (b) and, immediately this pressure ceases the shutter will close.
Set the lever (a) to 25, 50 or 100. A pressure on the lever (b) or on the flexible release will give an exposure of one-twenty-fifth, one-fiftieth or one-hundredth of a second as desired.
The Telma shutter allows speeds of one-twenty-fifth, one-fiftieth, one-hundredth and one-one-hundred-and-twenty-fifth of a second with or without delayed action release and for long or short time exposures.
The lever and graduated scales for setting the shutter speeds and the diaphragm are located n the upper part of the shutter and can therefore be easily operated when the camera is in position for exposure.
Instantaneous exposures without delayed action release
With this hutter the exposure times are set by a ring (f), which must be rotated in such a manner that its index points to one of the numbers 25, 50, 100 or 125. After setting the shutter by pressure on the lever (g), make the exposure by pressure on the lever (b) or on the flexible release which is screwed into the bush (c).
Instantaneous exposures with delayed action release
The manipulation is the same as described above. In addition to this, the clockwork must be set by means of the lever (e). A pressure on lever (b) or on the flexible release will then release the shutter after the clockwork has first run down. i.e. after about 12 seconds.
Long time exposure
Place the index of the ring (f) to the letter T and set the shutter by pressure on the lever (g). A pressure on lever (b) or the flexible release opens the shutter and a second pressure closes it.
Short time exposure
Place the index of the ring (f) to the letter B and set the shutter by pressure on the lever (g). Open the shutter by pressure on lever (b), immediately this pressure ceases, the shutter will close.
The Iris disphragm
The diaphragm is set by the lever d1 and is indicated on the scale by the pointer d.
With the Klio shutter it is possible to take instantaneous exposures from one to one-one-hundred-and-fiftieth (with lens 1:4.5) and to one-one-hundred-and seventy-fifth (with lens 1:6.3) sec., with and without delayed action release, and long or short time exposures.
The scales and levers for setting the shutter speeds and diaphragm stops are conveniently located on the upper part of the shutter, so that settings can be easily operated when the camera is in position for exposure.
Turn the ring (f) until the red index points to one of the figures 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 or 150 (175), which represent fractions of a second. After setting the shutter by pressing down the lever (g), open it by pressure on lever (b) or on the wire release which is screwed into the bush (c).
Instantaneous exposures with delayed action release
The manipulation is the same as described above, and in addition the delayed action release is set by means of the lever (e). A pressure on the lever (b) or on the flexible release sets the clockwork of the delayed action release in motion and after about 12 seconds the shutter is dischared in the usual way.
Long time exposures
Set the index of the ring (f) to the letter T. A pressure on the lever (b) or on the flexible release opens the shutter, which will remain open until a second pressure closes it.
Short time exposure
Set the index of the ring (f) to the letter B and open the shutter by a pressure on the lever (b) or on the flexible release; immediately this pressure ceases, the shutter will close.
The diaphragm is set by means of lever (d1). The indicator (d) shows the respective stops on the scale.
Compur and Compur Rapid Shutter, with and without delayed action release
When delayed action release is not in use proceed as follows:
T Long Time exposures
Turn ring (g) till letter T is on the index mark (a). Pressure on lever (b) or on the flexible release inserted at (c) opens the shutter, which will remain open till a second pressure closes it.
B Short Time exposures
Turn ring (g) till letter B is on the index mark (a). Pressure on the release opens the shutter, which will close as soon as this pressure ceases.
Turn ring (g) till the speed chosen is on index mark (a). Set the shutter by moving lever (e) to the right to the limit of motion. Release the shutter by a pressure on the lever (b) or on the flexible release. Lever (e) is used only for instantaneous exposures of 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 250 (400 with Compur Rapid) of a second. When the shutter is set for T or B, this lever is locked.
The Iris diaphragm
Set the diaphragm scale indicator (d) to the number representing the aperture of the iris it is desired to use.
When using the delayed action release proceed as follows:
Instantaneous Work with the delayed action release for speeds from 1 up to 100th (up to 200th with the Compur Rapid) of a second
Set shutter as previously described by means of lever (e). Then push button (f) aside in the direction of the arrow and move lever (e) a little farther on, till it is arrested a second time.
A pressure on lever (b) will set the clock work of the delayed action release in motion and after about 12 seconds the release will discharge the shutter at the set speed indicated on dial (g).
The camera casing release
The fitting of the shutter release knob on the camera body allows the camera to rest firmly in both hands when exposing, while one finger of the left hand fires the shutter.
If this release is inadvertantly pressed as the camera is opened, it may happen that the release lever bcomes detached and will not then fire the shutter. In this event simply close the camera momentarily to bring the release lever into the correct position.
The delayed action release is not available for use with time exposures nor for speeds higher that 100th (200th) of a second. When setting the shutter it is advisable to exert a counter-pressure on the shutter bearer in order to avoid excessive wear of the mecanism and of the metal parts of the camera front.
The diaphragm is set by the indicator (d). The shifting of this pointer varies the size of the lens aperture, which diminishes with the increase in the number of the stop. The use of the smaller stops has the great practical advantage that it provides a means of increasing the general sharpness of the picture.
The stopping down of the lens aperture naturally has the effect of diminishing the light transmitted by the lens; therefore each succeeding stop requires approximately twice the exposure of the preceding one.
The exact time of exposure corresponding to a certain stop is best taken from the exposure table supplied with the camera, or it may be determined by the aid of the Zeiss Ikon Diaphot, which we can recommend as a thoroughly reliable exposure meter.
The Distance Scale
is engraved upon the lens cell. By the rotation of this cell the lens can be set to distances from infiity to 6 or 5 feet resp. Settings to intermediate distances as those marked on the scale, can easily be estimated.
To the more advanced amateur it is a matter of some interest to know what depth of definition he may reckon with at the various sizes of stop and at different distances. For this reason a depth of focus table is appended. This table indicates to what distance and stop the camera requires to be set in order to photograph objects requiring considerable depth of focus, such as landscapes with foreground, large groups comprising persons in front 12 feet away, others some 33 feet from the camera, and so forth. In the latter case the table shows that with stop 11 and with the focussing scale set to a distance of 18 feet, the depth of focus extends from 11 feet 5 inches to 42 feet 4 inches, from which it will be seen that a group requiring a depth of 12-33 feet will appear sufficiently sharp in the picture.
Taking the Photograph
The camera requires to be focused according to the distance of the object which is to be taken.
With stop 6.3 or 8 snapshots on a sunny day at a speed of 100th second and with stop 3.5 or 4.5 at a speed of 250th second are possible. In dull light slower speeds should be used and very fast moving objects should not be photogrpahed or only when they are not too near.
On a bright day the diaphragm may be reduced to f/11 and the distance scale set to 48 feet for sake of obtaining an equally sharp picture pf objects from the farthest ditance to a foreground as near as 19 feet.
Portraits and near exposures at 6 to 7 feet should be made only at full aperture of diaphragm.
To push the readiness of the Nettar for immediate use to the utmost it is advisable to adjust it once for ever in the following way:
Diaphragm about 12.5; Distance about 33 feet, which adjustments are marked by red dots – and shutter 25th sec.
Under these conditions all objects from infinity to a distance of about 13 feet from the camera will give sharp pictures, and, using Zeiss Ikon Film “Orthochrom” or “Panchrom” the exposure time is sufficient even for taking views on clear winter days between three hours before and after noon.
Using supplementary lenses
When taking photographs at short distances the camera lens must be combined with a supplementary lens.
The lens f/6.3 with a supplementary lens No. 995/8 for distances between 6 ft. 6 inches and 2 feet 10 inches.
The lens f/4.5 with a supplementary lens No. 995/24 for distances between 4 ft. 11 inches and 2 feet 6 inches or a supplementary lens No. 995/25 for distances between 2 ft. 5 inches and 1 foot 7 inches.
The lens f/3.5 with a supplementary lens No. 995/48 for distances between 4 ft. 11 inches and 2 feet 6 inches or a supplementary lens No. 995/49 for distances between 2 ft. 5 inches and 1 foot 7 inches.